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The PMHNP is evaluating a 15-year-old male patient who has been referred by his courtappointed guardian. He has been in foster care for the last 6 years and maintained a steady pattern of low-level behavior problems such as skipping school and ignoring curfew. He is not openly defiant and has always been described as a ―loner.‖ He just does not follow most rules. During the mental status examination, the PMHNP notes that his expressions are sometimes inconsistent with the topic of conversation, and he does not seem to be able to transition effectively among levels of emotion. This represents an abnormality in:
A variety of diagnostic instruments are available to assist the PMHNP with comprehensive data collection. Which of the following tools is considered an ―interviewer-based‖ tool designed as a guide to clinicians designed to help clarify answers to questions?
3 61 Kevin is a 15-year-old male who presents for court-ordered psychiatric assessment. Kevin comes to his first appointment with both of his parents. He is sitting in the chair with his arms crossed and responds with ―yes‖ and ―no‖ answers to direct questions; otherwise, he volunteers no information. The parents are clearly upset and indicate they just ―don’t know what to do with him anymore.‖ The most appropriate action for the PMHNP would be to:
4 the PMHNP observes separation from and reunion with the parent as part the mental status exam of a 25-month-old toddler. Extremes of emotion during separation or reunion are most consistent with:
5 the PMHNP is performing an emergency assessment on Renee, a 9-year-old girl who was initially brought to the attention of social services by her maternal grandmother. Renee is reluctant to talk about herself or her home life. The physical examination that accompanied this emergency assessment revealed a variety of ecchymoses in various stages of healing, and the examiner was suspicious that there was a history of sexual abuse. Renee is quiet and passive during the interview, but is rather aggressive when playing with dolls. While considering the need for removal from the home, the PMHNP knows that all the following are risk factors for predictors of further abuse and maltreatment except:
6 Harmony is a 4-year-old female who has been through several evaluations for behavioral abnormalities that have become increasingly disruptive, and the family is concerned for the safety of both Harmony and her 2-year-old brother. Comprehensive assessment of Harmony includes neuropsychiatric testing. The PMHNP documents the presence of neurological hard signs. These suggest:
7During the mental status exam of Oliver, a 4-year-old child, the PMHNP appreciates that he appears to be having transient visual and auditory hallucinations. The PMHNP knows that the best approach to this finding is to consider that:
The PMHNP has been retained by the local school board to provide comprehensive counseling and guidance following an episode of tragic school violence. A 9th grader, acting alone, brought a gun into the school, fatally shooting a teacher and injuring four other teachers and students before he was subdued. In an effort to promote best healthy practices after this traumatic event, the school board is asking for advice on how to best manage the students. The PMHNP knows that the immediate priority must be:
Jenny is a 5-year-old female who has been referred for consultation because the emergency room physician suspects that she might be subject to physical abuse in the home. On evaluation, the PMHNP finds Jenny to be fearful, docile, and guarded. Although clearly in pain, Jenny seems surprised when the PMHNP attempts to provide some comfort. The PMHNP notes that:
Kelly is an 8-year-old girl who is being evaluated by the PMHNP because she is markedly behind he peers in school performance. During her mental status examination, she is unable to repeat three objects after five minutes, and is unable to repeat five digits forward or three digits backward. Further evaluation reveals an inability to add single digits. The PMHNP interprets this finding as:
Richard is an 11-year-old patient who has been hospitalized following a suicide attempt in which he mixed a variety of household cleansers and poisons and swallowed them. He has been medically cleared, and his initial psychiatric assessment reveals a preadolescent male who made this suicide attempt because he was so unhappy at school. His family recently moved from another part of the country and he started a new school. The other children have been bullying him, and he just decided it would be better to die. He has no siblings and no friends in this new town. Which additional findings during this assessment would prompt the PMHNP to suggest a psychiatric admission?
The PMHNP is discussing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treatment strategies with the parents of 4-year-old Jeffrey. He is nonverbal and has been completely unable to adapt to any changes of environment; an effort to put him in a preschool class was what precipitated his evaluation and eventual diagnosis. At this point, Jeffrey’s parents are very committed to doing anything necessary to support Jeffrey’s growth and development and promotion of prosocial behavior. While developing his plan of care, the PMHNP suggests:
The PMHNP is writing an article to increase awareness among pediatric primary care providers to those factors that may suggest higher than average risk for the development of childhood anxiety disorders. It is helpful to note that which of the following are neurophysiologic correlates between young children and anxiety disorders?
The PMHNP is evaluating the data he has collected in the assessment of Anna, a 9-yearold girl who presented for evaluation because her teacher strongly encouraged Anna’s mother to seek care. According to the teacher, Anna has been consistently disruptive in the classroom since the beginning of the school year, 2 months ago. The assessment includes unstructured interviews with Anna, her mother, and grandmother, and Connors Parent or Teacher Rating Scale for ADHD completed by her primary school teacher and mother. The PMNHP notes a marked disparity among reports—they all seem to contradict each other. The PMHNP considers that this apparent contradiction:
The PMHNP is evaluating 12-year-old Dale after the police were called to the home. Dale is assessed as having a psychotic episode; he tells the NP that voices are telling him that he is bad and that he should hurt himself. According to the mother, he has no history of psychiatric disease, medications, or really any concerns at all. Mom says he goes to school, has friends, and has always seemed ―normal.‖ An interview with his 13-year-old sister reveals that while there is no long-term history of abnormal behavior, for the last couple of weeks things have been very strange at home. His father has been arrested for ―something to do with a teenage girl,‖ and their parents have been fighting. His father lost his job, and there is a lot of talk about money and lawyers and jail. Dale has been very emotional as he has always been close to his Dad; he seems to go from crying to laughing in a blink, and is getting in fights at school. Even now, after he has calmed a bit, Dale’s reality testing is altered. The PMHNP considers that Dale is demonstrating:
The PMHNP is providing counseling for the family of a 6-year-old girl who was recently adopted. This girl reportedly was removed from a home in which she was subjected to severe, long-term abuse in all forms: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, malnutrition, and neglect of all medical care. Upon her rescue, which was incidental during a drug raid on the home, she was hospitalized for over 1 month for physical maintenance, nutrition, hydration, and treatment for a variety of infections, including sexually transmitted diseases. The adoptive family is very committed to providing a healthy environment and is very receptive to long-term individual and family therapy. The PMHNP discusses with the new parents and siblings that which of the following is most often linked to this type of history:
Comprehensive psychiatric/mental health assessment of children includes an interview with the parents or caregivers. Which of the following is not a true statement with respect to the parental interview? Wendy is a 6-year-old female being evaluated by the PMHNP following a suicide attempt. The police were called when a neighbor saw Wendy jump out of the open window of her first-floor apartment. She was unhurt, but when the neighbor asked why she jumped out she said she wanted to kill herself. Which coincident finding would warrant an inpatient psychiatric admission for Wendy?
Psychiatric assessment of the adolescent patient is different in several ways from assessment of younger children. While trying to establish a therapeutic environment with an adolescent who is openly hostile, one of the most important things the PMHNP can do is to:
Having child and adolescent patients rate their feelings and moods on a scale of 1-10 is most effective in which age group?
Which of the following is a true statement with respect to developmental testing in infants?
Which of the following is a true statement with respect to crisis intervention and psychological debriefing as a preventive strategy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?
Evaluation of psychiatric emergencies in children must include:
Melanie is a 13-month-old female who has been referred by her primary care pediatrician. She has not had consistent well-child checks, and at her first visit with this pediatrician at age 1 year, there was a notable absence of verbal babbling, interactive
play, or smiling. Comprehensive assessment of Melanie must include all the following except:
Brian is a 13-year-old boy who presents for care. He was initially brought in by his mother after a family friend suggested mental health evaluation. Brian has been suffering with a variety physical symptoms for the past 8 months, ever since school started. He has missed so much school that he is in danger of not advancing to the eighth grade. He persistently complains of headache, stomachache, nausea, and dizziness. He has even vomited on more than one occasion, so his mother knows something is ―really wrong.‖ The pediatrician has been unable to identify a cause of symptoms or offer any relief. During his interview, the PMHNP learns that this is Brian’s first year in middle school. There are hundreds of students, and it is much larger than the intimate elementary school Brian attended from kindergarten through sixth grade. Brian is certain that all the students are making fun of him; he does not even go to the lunchroom to eat. He has stopped socializing with his small group of friends from elementary school because they have made friends among the other seventh graders. Brian says he wants to have friends, but he just gets nervous and he is sure they will all make fun of him. Brian enjoys ―hanging out‖ with his cousins, and they spent the week of spring break playing at his house. But, when it was time to go back to school, Brian was so nauseous he could not attend. Initial treatment for Brian should include:
Phillip is a 5-year-old boy who is in care after being referred for failure to speak at school. He has been in kindergarten for 5 months, and initially his teacher thought he was just shy, so she did not focus on him. However, it has become increasingly apparent that he flat out will not speak at school. Phillip’s parents are adamant that there is not any problem at home and that Phillip talks with them and his older sister routinely. Further assessment reveals that he has always been extremely shy and that he doesn’t like it when people make a fuss over him. The PMHNP suspects that Phillip has selective mutism, which is closely related to:
Conventional antipsychotics are not first-line interventions in early-onset schizophrenia due to the risk of dystonic reactions. However, when children are not responsive to first-line therapy with atypical antipsychotics, which of the following is the most appropriate conventional choice?
The therapeutic outcomes for children with disorders of written expression are most favorable when they are characterized by:
Linda is a 5-year-old girl who has persistent pica; she was finally referred for care when her kindergarten teacher became alarmed by her eating of potentially toxic nonfood substances. Linda’s mother admits during the history that Linda has been doing this for years, but thought it was not a big deal since Linda didn’t eat anything dangerous. Linda’s mother must work two jobs and essentially did not bother to pursue Linda’s unusual symptom because it didn’t seem unsafe. While discussing management strategies with Linda’s mother, the PMHNP counsels that the most rapidly successful treatment strategy appears to be:
Rumination is a feeding disorder most commonly seen in infants, but it can occur at any point in the lifespan. Characteristic findings in infants include:
Katelyn is a16-year-old girl who presents for therapy with her mother and father. Katelyn was born with male genitalia but has felt like a female “all of her life.” She says she knew something was different as far back as she can remember. She always wanted to wear her mother’s clothes and makeup and play with other girls. Katelyn started dressing and openly identifying as a girl when she was 13 years old, and her parents are trying to be supportive but they are struggling. Most recently Katelyn has developed an intimate partner relationship with Jennifer, a 15-year-old girl who was gender-assigned female at birth and identifies as a female. Katelyn’s father does not understand the relationship. The PMHNP explains that Katelyn:
All the following are true with respect to making a diagnosis of major depressive disorder in children except:
Donna is a 16-year-old transgender female who has been through extensive individual and family counseling and is ready to start hormone therapy with estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone-blocking agents. When counseling her specifically about the risks, benefits, and required monitoring of hormonal therapy, the PMHNP advises Donna that:
The leading cause of death in youths living in juvenile residential facilities is:
The PMHNP is working with a pediatrician colleague on a journal article to increase awareness and improve diagnostic strategies for early-onset bipolar disorder. Based upon a review of the longitudinal research on this disorder, the literature review of this article should include all the following except:
Tiana is a 10-year-old girl who is being referred for evaluation because her school performance is appreciably below what is expected at her age. Historically she has been a very happy child, likes school, and looks forward to going. However, over the last several months her teacher reports that she is much slower than her peers in reading, and she appears to be upset and withdrawn when asked to read in class. The PMHNP would expect additional report from the teacher to include all the following except:
Which of the following statements best characterized the treatment course and progression of bulimia nervosa?
Kelly is a 14-year-old female who has finally been referred for management of anorexia nervosa. She was diagnosed almost 1 year ago with the food-restricting subtype, but attempts to get her into psychiatric care were unsuccessful. She continues to be resistant but her caloric intake is now < 400 daily and she finally appears to be unable to sustain the supraphysiologic levels of exercise that she has maintained to try and “keep her weight down.” She is 5’2” tall and weighs 82 lbs., which is approximately 75% of ideal body weight for her height. Her vital signs are stable and surprisingly there are no profound laboratory or ECG abnormalities. When counseling Kelly and her parents about the recommended course of treatment, the PMHNP advises that Kelly will require:
In which demographic is depression twice as prevalent in girls as compared to boys?
Debbie is a 10-year-old female who has been referred to remediation therapy for her reading disorder. While designing her treatment program, the PMHNP knows that the most current strategies are characterized by:
Which of the following symptom clusters is most likely in a 16-year-old male with major depressive disorder?
The etiology of childhood depression is multifactorial and may include biological factors. Which of the following is a true statement with respect to hormonal studies in depressed children?
Jared is a 6-year-old boy who comes to the PMHNP for an evaluation with his father. The father reports that he is worried about Jared because he has had problems fitting in at school ever since he started kindergarten. He does not have any friends at school and does not seem to know how to play with others. Dad reports that Jared has never been “very talkative” and sometimes switches from one topic to another without any reason. When considering early-onset schizophrenia, the PMHNP recognizes that which of the following must be present?
Learning disorders affect at least 5% of all school-aged children in the United States. Since 1975, Public Law 94-142 mandates that all states provide free, appropriate services to all children. Among the various types of learning disorders, the PMHNP knows that the overwhelming majority are:
While the core features of schizophrenia are essentially the same in children as they are in adults, the presentation or characterization is sometimes very different given developmental issues. Unlike adults with schizophrenia, children with schizophrenia do not have:
The PMHNP is working with rural primary care providers to increase awareness of mental health disorders in infancy and early childhood. The program includes a session on screening for feeding disorders in infants. If an infant is either observed by the provider or reported by the parent to frequently suck the tongue rhythmically or appear to strain with his or her back arched and then swallow, the examiner should consider the possibility of:
Which of the following is a true statement with respect to avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder?
Regarding pediatric suicide, which of the following is a true statement?
The PMHNP is working with a couple who has been trying for years to conceive and is now ready to pursue adoption as an option. They are considering all possibilities; private vs. government-mediated adoption, adopting from another country, adopting a child of a different race or ethnicity, adopting an older child rather than an infant, and adopting a child who is currently in foster care vs. one who lives in an orphanage. While counseling this couple, the PMHNP advises them that:
The PMHNP is treating Pam, a 13-year-old female, for moderate-to-severe major depressive disorder. In addition to cognitive behavioral therapy, the PMHNP discusses with the patient and her father the plan to begin sertraline, 50 mg daily, then titrate the dose up when tolerance is established. Pam’s father has researched this medication and is concerned because he read about the risk of increased suicidal ideation. The most appropriate response is to tell Pam’s father that:
Treatment of early-onset schizophrenia can be challenging due to the paucity of evidence-based support for various pharmacotherapeutics and nonpharmacologic interventions. In a recent study comparing olanzapine to clozapine, outcomes were assessed with the Clinical Global Impression of Severity of Symptoms Scale and Schedule for the Assessment of Negative/Positive Symptoms. Clozapine was found to demonstrate statistically significant superiority in which outcome measure?
While counseling the parents of Joshua, a 9-year-old patient with developmental coordination disorder, the PMHNP advised that the treatment will include:
The literature indicates that boys whose fathers died before the age of 13 are at a greater risk for the development of depression as compared to controls. This is consistent with which general theory of depression etiology?
Standardized instructional programs used in the management of reading disorders include all the following except:
The PMHNP suspects that Wesley, an 8-year-old male, has a reading disorder. In kindergarten his teacher documented some suspicion for a disorder, but throughout first grade and now into second grade, he is clearly functioning below expected levels.. He becomes increasingly anxious when asked to read in school. Which aspect of Wesley’s history would support the risk for this diagnosis?
When counseling the parents of an intersex neonate, the PMHNP recognizes that the current standard of care is to counsel toward:
Jessica is a 26-month-old female who is being evaluated because she will not eat. Her parents report that she just flat out will not eat her meals. Her mother says that she has followed all the pediatrician’s suggestions: she has eliminated any snacks or drinks between meals, and she has offered a variety of foods, including those that Jessica seemed to enjoy previously. Jessica is not sick; has no problems with vomiting or elimination abnormalities. Jessica’s parent say that her pediatrician is not concerned, but they are not comfortable with what appears to be an almost complete absence of food intake. While considering a diagnosis of avoidant food intake disorder the PMHNP knows that any of the following would fulfill the diagnostic criteria except:
Rose is a 13-year-old girl who is being evaluated as part of a family assessment; the primary patient is Rose’s 8-year-old brother who is demonstrating behavior of concern and is having a court-ordered evaluation. During the family assessment, it becomes apparent that Rose’s mother is very concerned that Rose is a tomboy. The mother, who is very elegant, is distressed by Rose’s persistent “tomboy” behavior and worries that Rose might become a lesbian, which would be “unacceptable” to the family. More detailed evaluation of Rose reveals that she is experiencing some sexual reflection. She excels at sports and has always preferred rough and tumble play, but she doesn’t see anything wrong with that. She thinks she is sexually attracted to one of her female teachers, and sometimes fantasizes about her. Rose just began menstruating 3 months ago, and while she has had a boyfriend at school, she is not sexually active in any way; they have kissed a few times, and she likes it, but she has no plans to take it any further. Otherwise Rose seems well adjusted, worries about her brother, and dismisses her mother’s concerns as “silly.” Which of the following statements best characterizes Rose?
Caylee is a 5-year-old girl who is referred for evaluation by child protective services. She was recently removed from her biological family and placed in foster care as her home environment was reportedly unsafe due to conditions of extreme neglect. Her foster mother reports that Caylee is very quiet and withdrawn and always appears sad and disinterested in her surroundings; however, she becomes very irritable when anything unexpected or unplanned occurs. The foster mother became very concerned when it appeared that Caylee was hallucinating. The PMHNP considers that:
Ms. Stevenson is a 21-year-old woman who brings her 3-week-old infant to the PMHNP for an “emergency” evaluation. Ms. Stevenson has a 2-year-old who was diagnosed with rumination disorder when he was 10 months old and had to be hospitalized for tube feedings while the family started treatment. Ms. Stevenson is worried now because her new baby vomits every time he eats; she is afraid he has the same thing. The PMHNP counsels Ms. Stevenson that:
Confidentiality is a complex topic in the world of child and adolescent psychiatry. The last 40 to 50 years have been characterized by increased attention to this issue and the publication of various ethical codes and practice position statements by professional organizations. Which of the following is not a true statement with respect to confidentiality of the child or adolescent client?
Which of the following is a true statement with respect to developmental coordination disorder?
The PMHNP is preparing a presentation for a conference of pediatric primary care providers. The topic of the presentation is early identification and referral of developmental coordination disorder. When outlining high-risk populations, the PMHNP discusses that statistically there is a higher incidence of occurrence in children with all of the following except:
A 14-year-old boy was presented to care by his parents because of progressive social withdrawal. Upon completion of the patient interview, mental status exam, and family assessment, review of all information reveals that for the past 15 months Bruce has been progressively “moody.” His parents say that he has become so irritable that his little brother and sister are afraid to talk to him anymore. Additionally, he has become socially withdrawn, now not even wanting to go to school. Bruce says he is tired all the time and just doesn’t feel like doing anything. He often does not complete homework assignments. When considering a diagnosis of dysthymic disorder, the PMHNP knows that which other history finding must be present?
Debi is a 15-year-old girl who is currently being treated for depression. Her parents have been very proactive and involved in her care, and Debi has achieved remission 2 months after beginning treatment with a combination of pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. While counseling Debi’s parents about important issues in management, the PMHNP advises that:
The current scholarly consensus is that the etiology of bulimia nervosa is multifactorial to include biological, sociocultural, family, cognitive-behavioral, and psychodynamic factors. When considering the etiology of bulimia nervosa, the PMHNP understands that:
Mrs. Henderson is a 24-year-old mother of 4 children under the age off 5. She has developed a trust relationship with the PMNHP after successful evaluation and management of ADHD in her oldest child. She now brings in her 3-year-old for an evaluation because she keeps eating things she finds within reach – paper, dirt, and one day, the mother found this child eating from the cat litter box. The mother says the child is up to date on her vaccines but she has not mentioned this problem to the pediatrician. The PMHNP knows that immediate assessment must include:
There is a high incidence of overlap among children with bipolar disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and anxiety disorders. Which of the following manic symptoms of bipolar disorder are most closely correlated to conduct disorder?
Bipolar I disorder is being diagnosed with increasing frequency in prepubertal children. Which of the following is a true statement with respect to this trend?
Marion is a 17-year-old female who has been referred by her high school guidance counselor for evaluation. The counselor is concerned that Marion has an eating disorder because she has seen her in the bathroom on several occasions vomiting, but there is no other indicator of illness like fever or missing school days. When considering the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, the PMHNP knows that all of the following must be present except:
Susan is a 12-year-old girl who is referred for psychiatric evaluation because she is having social problems at school. She is always picked last for teams in physical education, and she is becoming exceedingly depressed about the lack of social interaction at school. A detailed history reveals that Susan has always had delayed developmental milestones, including delayed sitting without support and transferring objects hand to hand. She did not walk until she was 20 months old, and for years afterward had persistent issues with falling. Now, at age 12, she is having trouble with her handwriting. The PMHNP considers which of the following diagnoses as most likely?
Maria is an 11-year-old girl who has been diagnosed with early-onset schizophrenia. In writing up her case report for publication, the PMHNP makes it a point to highlight which of the following historical features that are often seen in schizophrenia of middle childhood?
When completing this exam, did you comply with Walden University’s Code of Conduct including the expectations for academic integrity?
Mel is a 15-year-old male with a complex psychiatric assessment. He has a long history of mood instability, behavior problems, and trouble with school work. He was an extremely active child who, at one time, was put on medication for hyperactivity. After a comprehensive evaluation, the PMHP recognizes that he meets diagnostic criteria for both bipolar I disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The most successful approach to his management is likely to begin with:
Christine is a 9-year-old female who presents for care after having been placed in the local foster care system. She has been in and out of foster care for the last 4 years after her parents were killed in an automobile accident. Christine has been placed in a variety of homes and residential care facilities. The PMHNP recognizes that Christine is at high risk for:
Ramon is a 12-year-old male who was started on fluoxetine, 40 mg daily, for major depressive disorder 6 weeks ago. At his 2-week follow-up he was feeling well with no adverse drug effects, and his dose was elevated from 20 to 40 mg. Today he presents for a routine follow-up visit. He reports that he has been “all wound up” and is frequently agitated. He cannot sleep well and has trouble focusing at school. His friends say that he gets upset quickly, and they are starting to avoid him. The most appropriate approach is to:
While not currently indicated for the treatment of early-onset bipolar disorder, which of the following medications has demonstrated utility in clinical trials without any associated weight change, rash, or other adverse events?
In the juvenile justice system, the difference between delinquent acts and status offenses is:
Cameron is a 7-year-old boy who has been diagnosed with ADHD and started on psychostimulants. Two months later there has been no meaningful improvement of symptoms, and he is referred from primary care to a PMHNP. While reviewing his records, the PMHNP notes that Cameron has been living with his aunt and uncle and their four children since the death of his mother 6 months ago. Cameron, who reportedly was always a happy and well-adjusted only child, developed symptoms shortly after these major life changes. His symptoms were characterized primarily by temper tantrums and an inability to sit still. He is not functioning well in school and is having repeated stomachaches and headaches. The PMHNP considers that the most appropriate action would be to stop the psychostimulant and assess Cameron for:
The PMHNP has been trained in custody evaluations and is preparing to perform his first evaluation as a guardian ad litem. The case involves a 6-year-old boy and his 4-year-old sister. The parents are very angry and not able to talk or come to any agreements at all. Both parents want full custody and support from the other parent, both of whom are working professionals. After interviewing each party alone and then conducting a family interview, the PMHNP reviews all records made available, including the legal filings and petitions. There are no allegations of abuse or neglect or unsuitability from either parent; they just each want full custody. In addition to considering the best interests of the children, the PMHNP knows that the elements considered by the court will include all the following except the:
Justin is a 12-year-old male who was recently diagnosed with schizophrenia. He was quickly placed into a highly regarded assessment and treatment program and began pharmacotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. His parents have had a difficult time with the diagnosis as Justin has always been very healthy, a good school performer, and has never had any developmental concerns or delays. However, they are very supportive and committed to his recovery. Justin has been on an atypical antipsychotic for 1 month with no intolerable adverse effects. When counseling Justin’s parents about the prognosis, the PMHNP advises the parents that which of the following is more correlated with good outcomes in patients like Justin?
There are several physiologic abnormalities that may result in ambiguous genitalia and/or an unclear sense of gender identity leading to gender dysphoria. When an adolescent female is found to have cryptorchid testes, this indicates a condition known as:
Ryan is a 6-year-old male who is being evaluated because his pediatrician is concerned that he demonstrates a marked inability to perform the daily motor skills consistent with what is expected at his age. At the age of 3 he was assessed due to delay in developmental milestones and was found to have an IQ of 68, consistent with mild mental retardation. When interpreting his motor coordination today, the PMHNP considers that:
Bruce and Debbie have made an appointment for a psychiatric consultation for what amounts to psychiatric genetic counseling. Bruce is 31 years old and Debbie is 28 years old. They have been married for 3 years and want to have children. Debbie is worried because she has a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Her symptoms first became evident when she was in her junior year of college; fortunately, she knew about the disease due to family history and sought care quickly. She has been very open with Bruce, and they are both well informed about the disease. Debbie is an only child and her father had schizophrenia that was not well controlled. He committed suicide when she was 15 years old. Debbie takes olanzapine and feels well overall. She has a part-time job, functions well, but is concerned about the genetic nature of her disease. Counseling for Bruce and Debbie includes which of the following pieces of information?
The American Adoption Congress represents the shared interests of the adoption triad, a phrase used to represent:
Roshan is a fourth grader who is being evaluated for poor scholastic performance in mathematics. He has always been a happy, healthy child, has socialized with friends at school, and presents no behavioral concerns at home. However, his math performance has always been below the average for his grade, and now he is performing so far below his peers that he is really beginning to be upset about it. While being evaluated for a learning disorder, the PMHNP appreciates that Roshan has had a marked deficit in his ability to recognize and understand symbols and order clusters of numbers. This suggests a deficit in:
The PMHNP is having a family meeting with 8-year-old Hunter and his father and stepmother to discuss the results of his mathematics assessment. Analysis of his performance on the KeyMath Diagnostic Arithmetic Test reveals a performance markedly below what is expected for his age. Hunter’s mother feels certain that his poor performance is a result of poor education; apparently Hunter’s mother was homeschooling him, but subsequently she was found to be so neglectful of all of his needs that his father and stepmother were given full custody. When discussing the course and prognosis for Hunter’s mathematics disorder, the PMHNP advises that:
When considering a diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder, the PMHNP knows that the diagnosis may be associated with:
Margaret is a 14-year-old girl being seen in follow-up for major depressive disorder. She has been on a therapeutic dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for 3 months and has still failed to achieve remission. Consistent with the Texas Children’s Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP), the next action should be to:
Benjamin is a 4-year-old male who is being evaluated because his mom is afraid that he may be schizophrenic. There is a history of schizophrenia in the mother’s family; her maternal aunt, one sister, and one of her brother’s children were all diagnosed with schizophrenia. Today she reports that Benjamin has episodes during which he appears to be hallucinating. Sometimes he seems to see things that aren’t there, and other times he actually talks with and plays with imaginary people. The PMHNP continues to gather information from the mother and Benjamin and plans to do some observation of Benjamin during play. When considering a diagnosis of early-onset schizophrenia, the PMHNP considers all of the following except:
The PMHNP is working with the parents of a 13-month-old male who is diagnosed with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. The toddler will eat, but he seems to tire both physically and emotionally very quickly and is easily distracted; once distracted, he will not return to the meal. His weight trajectory has dropped and he has gone from a weight of 60 percentile for age/height to 10 percentile for age/height. As part of the transactional plan of care, the parents will be encouraged to:
Children with gender dysphoria typically have higher rates of all the following except:
Andrew is a 14-year-old male who is being managed for bipolar I disorder. He was started on lithium 6 weeks ago and has achieved a serum level of 1.1 mEq/L according to his most recent blood work. Andrew says he doesn’t feel any different, but both his parents and teachers report improvement in his mood. He has been more stable, is getting along better with friends and siblings, and is even more interested in his schoolwork. The PMHNP plans to maintain Andrew on this medication and knows that he will need which of the following ongoing laboratory assessments?
An astute pediatrician has referred Kyle, a 5-month-old infant, for evaluation of rumination disorder. His mother was concerned because he seemed to “want” to regurgitate every time he ate and would even seem to “put his hand down his throat” in order to stimulate regurgitation. Kyle had a thorough evaluation and according to the pediatrician did not have gastroesophageal reflux or hiatal hernia. The mother-infant relationship appeared to be healthy and, via assessment, the PMHNP could not identify any clear emotional issues. The primary treatment strategy for Kyle will likely focus on:
The difference between hormonal management of transgender adolescents from adults is that which of the following has no role in adult management?
Eileen is a 23-month-old girl who is being evaluated for autism spectrum disorder because her pediatrician is concerned about the presence of developmental red flags. She has just a few words of speech and has not put together any meaningful two-word phrases. While taking a history from Eileen’s mother the PMHNP learns that for approximately the last 2 months Eileen has been seen eating paint chips that are peeling off the baseboard and window sills in the family home; when she sees one she puts it in her mouth. This is a concern because they live in an old farmhouse and there may be lead-based paint in some of the paint layers. The PMHNP considers that which of the following is not consistent with a diagnosis of pica?
Rose is a 12-year-old female who is being evaluated for declining school performance and an increasing tendency to try to avoid going to school. Historically she has been an average student, although she has particularly struggled with writing exercises and has actually failed assignments this year. She consistently ignores rules of grammar, and her teacher says that her writing submissions look as if they were written by a much younger child. The PMHNP knows that the initial evaluation of Rose must include all the following except:
Kelly is a 13-year-old female who is being evaluated at the recommendation of her seventh-grade teacher. This is her first year in junior high and her teacher is concerned over what appears to be marked social isolation. She does not appear to have any close friends or social contacts. She eats lunch with the girl who lives next door to her, but even that is initiated more by the other child. Her teacher also reported that Kelly seems to have certain unusual preoccupations, such a preoccupation with religions despite the fact that her family has never been religious. During the examination, Kelly clearly demonstrates some odd behavior. When talking about her family, she does not express any emotion. She doesn’t laugh at anything and appears withdrawn, yet she will answer questions asked of her. The PMHNP, after completing his evaluation, considers a diagnosis of schizotypal disorder because review of Kelly’s assessment reveals:
The PMHNP is developing a brief informational pamphlet on gender dysphoria to distribute at a local mental health awareness event for the general public. The “basic facts” section of the pamphlet correctly states that:
Early-onset schizophrenia is quite rare as compared to adolescent and adult onset. Certain features are unique to early-onset schizophrenia and include all the following except:
All of the following are proposed etiologies of pica except:
Taryn is a 14-year-old female who is being evaluated as a condition to return to the private school in which she has been enrolled since fifth grade. She has an ongoing inability to focus in school, and her mood reportedly ranges from “one extreme to the other.” Per her mother, she is either overly excited about something and almost exaggerated in her approach, or she is disinterested and irritable and doesn’t want to leave her bedroom. She was evaluated several different times in childhood for ADHD, and even took medication once, but it didn’t help. In considering a diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder, the PMHNP considers that: