Read each scenario and write a 25- to 50-word answer for each question following the scenarios. Use at least one reference per scenario and format your sources consistent with APA guidelines. Scenario A Acute renal failure: Ms. Jones, a 68-year-old female, underwent open-heart surgery to replace several blocked vessels in her heart. On her first day postoperatively, it was noted that she had very little urine output. 1. What is happening to Ms. Jones’s kidneys, and why is it causing the observed symptom? 2. What other symptoms and signs might occur? 3. What is causing Ms. Jones’s kidney disease? 4. What are possible treatment options, and what is the prognosis? Scenario B Chronic renal failure: Mr. Hodges, a 73-year-old man, has had congestive heart failure for the past 5 years. His doctor has told him that his heart is not functioning well, needing more and more medicine to maintain circulatory function. He has noticed that he is not urinating more than once a day. 5. Why is the condition of Mr. Hodges’s kidneys affecting the rest of his body? 6. As his chronic renal failure worsens, what other symptoms and signs might occur in his respiratory, digestive, nervous, and urinary systems? 7. What is causing Mr. Hodges’s kidney disease? 8. What are possible treatment options, and what is the prognosis?
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