Assignment: Psy 370 Ch. 16 Assignment1.
It has been proposed that in the DMS-V, discussion on the concept of autism￼a.will be removed from the text.
￼b.will remain unchanged.
￼c.will be replaced with a broader category referred to as “conduct disorders of autistic type” and will drop references to linguistic problems.
￼d.be discussed as a single category of “autism spectrum disorders” rather than a list that includes numerous subcategories.
The “DSM” in DSM-IV refers to the￼a.Direct Services Method of Psychological Intervention
￼b.Diagram of Severe Mental Illnesses
￼c.Doctor’s Scientific/Psychological Medical Guide
￼d.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
In the diathesis-stress model, the term diathesis refers to a(n)￼a.social norm.
￼b.genetic or personality-based predisposition toward vulnerability.
￼c.anxiety-producing environmental event.
￼d.state of calm.
According to the diathesis-stress model, psychopathology results when￼a.a stressful event triggers an already existing vulnerability or predisposition.
￼b.the id develops.
￼c.a gene that is programmed to activate at a certain point during the lifespan “turns on” without any trigger.
￼d.a mentally healthy person takes a psychoactive drug.
An imbalance in _____ appears to play a role in the acquisition of major depressive disorder.￼a.corpus callosum activity
Echolalia is best described as￼a.a lack of organized speech.
￼b.parroting what someone else is saying.
￼c.saying socially inappropriate things.
￼d.not speaking at all.
Under which DSM-IV category would you find autism spectrum disorders?￼a.Personality disorders
￼c.Pervasive developmental disorders
On the DSM-IV, Asperger syndrome would be found under the label “_____ disorders.”￼a.anxiety
Winne has good verbal skills and is highly intelligent, but has social relationship skills typical of an autistic child. Given this description, Winnie is most likely to be diagnosed with _____ syndrome.￼a.Down
A now retracted article by Wakefield and others claimed that autism is caused by￼a.the MMR vaccine.
￼b.baby formula fortified with iron.
￼c.excessive infantile exposure to television and computer screens.
What key evidence has emerged to disprove the myth that thimerosal (a mercury-based preservative) is responsible for autism?￼a.The incidence of autism has decreased significantly, but only in females who are immune the impact of thimerosal.
￼b.As the amount of thimerosal in baby food has increased, the incidence of autism has decreased.
￼c.The incidence of autism has climbed after thimerosal was removed from the MMR vaccine.
￼d.Historically, no children with autism ever came into direct contact with thimerosal.
The most likely reason for the increase in the number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders is that￼a.in the 1990s, Asperger syndrome was removed from the DSM-IV.
￼b.in the 1990s, autism was removed from the U.S. list of disabilities eligible for special education services.
￼c.there is now a broader definition for what used to be just autism.
￼d.the rise has corresponded with the significant increase in the number of infants born with HIV.
What behavior would an infant display that would lead a competent doctor to accurately suspect the child is autistic?￼a.Excessive levels of joint attention
￼b.Failure to respond to human voices
￼c.An obsession with playing peek-a-boo and other social games
￼d.Showing a clear preference for human over nonhuman stimuli
Which statement concerning the intellectual abilities of autistic individuals is most accurate?￼a.The vast majority of autistics are mildly to severely mentally retarded.
￼b.Autistic individuals tend to score lower higher on nonverbal than verbal measures of intelligence.
￼c.More than half of children with autism score above 71 on IQ tests.
￼d.The description of some individuals with autism as “savants” with special abilities in a given area (e.g., quickly calculating the days of the week corresponding to dates on a calendar) is a myth.
All of the following are currently legitimate suspected causes of autism except￼a.lack of a theory of mind.
￼c.a lack of executive functions.
￼d.cold, rigid parenting.
Concerning genetic explanations of autism,￼a.there is clear evidence that autism is solely due to the presence of a third 21st chromosome.
￼b.the genes involved appear to cause a rapid deceleration of head and brain development over the course of the first three years after birth.
￼c.at this point there is no evidence of any genetic basis of the disorder.
￼d.many genes have been implicated including some that appear to have been copied too many times.
Which brain areas have been implicated as a possible cause of the behavioral problems found in individuals with autism?￼a.The hypothalamus and temporal cortex
￼b.The hippocampus and parietal cortex
￼c.The amygdala and frontal cortex
￼d.The thalamus and the occipital cortex
Mirror neurons￼a.generate multiple copies of themselves, and each copy leads to an increase in dopamine levels.
￼b.are very fragile, and when they “die,” they produce excessive levels of neuritic plaque.
￼c.only fire when they are stimulated by other mirror neurons.
￼d.allow us to relate the feelings of others to our own experiences.
Executive functions are thought to take place in the _____ cortex of the brain.￼a.prefrontal
According to the executive dysfunction hypothesis, autistic behavior is the result of a brain that is￼a.unable to plan and change one’s course of actions.
￼b.overrun with mirror neurons.
￼d.lacking Broca’s area.
Baron-Cohen has recently suggested that the extreme _____ hypothesis may explain the cause of Asperger syndrome.￼a.executive dysfunction
According to the extreme male brain theory of autism, the key problem with individuals with autism is that they￼a.are too empathetic and try too hard to keep the world orderly.
￼b.are too empathetic and do not attempt to keep the world orderly.
￼c.lack empathy and try too hard to keep the world orderly.
￼d.lack empathy and do not attempt to keep the world orderly.
Recent research has shown that the nasal administration of _____ appears to improve social information and understanding in high-functioning individuals with autism.￼a.oxytocin
Which statement concerning the long-term prognosis for autistic children is true?￼a.Intensive behavior modification programs have been shown to increase levels of aggressiveness and self-stimulation.
￼b.Most autistics achieve a normal level of functioning when they reach adulthood.
￼c.Most can be improved significantly through drug treatment.
￼d.The best interventions involve intensive and highly structured behavioral and educational programs aimed at young children.
Ivar Lovaas conducted pioneering research on children with autism in which he was able to use _____ to significantly improve their language and social skills.￼a.mirror therapy
The most accurate statement concerning the use of behavioral and cognitive interventions with children with autism is that they￼a.typically lead to significant improvements in all children, regardless of their age or level of intellect.
￼b.can lead to significant gains, especially in older children who do have significant intellectual disabilities.
￼c.can lead to significant gains, especially in young children who do not have severe intellectual disabilities.
￼d.are virtually worthless at changing behaviors.
Which is the best example of a somatic symptom in a depressed infant?￼a.Failure to develop an attachment to the primary caregiver
￼b.The lack of language
￼c.A disrupted sleep pattern
￼d.The lack of interest in playing with a toy
Failure to thrive in otherwise healthy infants is usually￼a.so severe that it cannot be undone.
￼b.attributed to perinatal complications.
￼c.misdiagnosed as autism.
￼d.the result of having unaffectionate or depressed caregivers.
Depression is most rare in￼a.middle adulthood.
By definition, all individuals who are classified with comorbidity￼a.are extremely close to death.
￼b.possess two psychological conditions at the same time.
￼c.have been negatively impacted by both genetic and environmental factors.
￼d.cannot control their impulses.
Children who have a depressive disorder￼a.differ from adolescents and adults with depression, because children never attempt suicide while the older age groups often do.
￼b.often have problems with depression as adolescents and adults.
￼c.are easy to identify because they frequently talk about their negative feelings.
￼d.seldom respond well to any form of psychotherapy.
Research has shown that _____ treatments tend to be the most effective when treating depression in children.￼a.drug
Many antidepressant drugs like Prozac are selective _____ reuptake inhibitors.￼a.norepinephrine
In 2004, the United States government issued a warning concerning the use of some antidepressant drugs and the possible increased risk of ____ in adolescence.￼a.birth defects
Which is true with regard to psychological “health” during adolescence?￼a.Few adolescents who are psychologically disturbed were maladjusted before they reached puberty.
￼b.Adolescents are far more likely than adults to experience some sort of psychological disturbance.
￼c.Most adolescents suffer at some point from some sort of significant psychological disturbance.
￼d.Adolescence is a time of heightened vulnerability for some forms of psychological disorders.
Which statement concerning adolescence is true?￼a.Few adolescents engage in delinquent or risky behavior during this period of life.
￼b.Adolescents have little difficulty with self-regulatory behaviors.
￼c.Most adolescents cope remarkably well with the challenges of this period of life.
￼d.Most adolescents experience serious psychopathology during this period of life.
Anorexia nervosa literally means “nervous loss of _____.”￼a.appetite
Gwen has been diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. Which of the following characteristics would she be least likely to possess?￼a.The use of laxatives or self-vomiting to purge food
￼b.A refusal to maintain body weight in spite of being in an emaciated state
￼c.A feeling of being fat
￼d.A tendency to consume huge quantities of foods in a single sitting
According to statistics, who is most likely to commit suicide?￼a.Jackson, a 25-year-old black male
￼b.George, an 18-year-old black male
￼c.Washington, an 80-year-old white male
￼d.Andrew, a 45-year-old white male
Which of the following is true with regard to adolescent suicide?￼a.More males than females attempt and are successful at committing suicide.
￼b.More females attempt suicide, but more males are successful at committing suicide.
￼c.More females than males attempt and are successful at committing suicide.
￼d.More males attempt suicide, but more females are successful at committing suicide.
According to statistics, what characteristic puts a teenage at the greatest risk for committing suicide?￼a.Lving in poverty
￼b.Being a victim of physical abuse
￼c.A homosexual orientation
￼d.A history of behavioral problems
Why is depression difficult to diagnose in older adults?￼a.There are no diagnostic criteria for diagnosing depression in the elderly.
￼b.As nearly all older depressed individuals commit suicide, there are few depressed individuals left to diagnose.
￼c.Many of the diagnostic symptoms are similar to normal losses associated with aging.
￼d.Normal cognitive loss associated with aging makes it hard for older people to answer questions about their mental state.
Which statement concerning psychopathology in adulthood is true?￼a.A major challenge in treating older individuals with depression is getting them to seek treatment.
￼b.The elderly are highly likely to be overdiagnosed with depression.
￼c.Treatments for depression in adulthood are highly ineffective.
￼d.Depression symptoms in older adulthood are so different from young adulthood that different DSM criteria are used in its detection.
Dementia is best defined as￼a.an inevitable, normal change in the brain with age.
￼b.a sudden loss of memory and intelligence.
￼c.a one-time period of significant disorientation.
￼d.a progressive loss of neural functioning.
What is the most common form of dementia?￼a.Down syndrome
What brain change is best associated with Alzheimer’s disease?￼a.Excessive quantities of the metal mercury
￼b.Neurofibrillary bundles surrounding alpha-amyloid
￼d.Excessive levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine
Beta-amyloids are found￼a.in large quantity in individuals with vascular dementia.
￼b.to contribute significantly to the development of anorexia nervosa.
￼c.only in clinically depressed individuals.
￼d.at the core of senile plaques.
Alzheimer’s disease is best described as￼a.nonprogressive and incurable.
￼b.progressive and incurable.
￼c.progressive and curable.
￼d.nonprogressive and curable.
The first sign of Alzheimer’s disease is typically￼a.trouble remembering recently learned verbal material.
￼b.difficulty on recognition tasks.
￼c.a loss of language skills.
A gene segment on the _____ chromosome has been implicated as a likely cause of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease.￼a.24th
How does the ApoE4 gene appear to contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease?￼a.By making the brain more susceptible to damage from a blow to the head
￼b.By decreasing blood flow to the prefrontal lobe
￼c.Through the creation of new synapses within the brain
￼d.Through an increased buildup of beta-amyloid
The extra “brain power” that individuals can sometimes rely on when disease begins to take a toll on their brain functioning is referred to as￼a.mirroring neurons.
Drugs like Aricept and Namenda that are currently used to treat Alzheimer’s disease tend to￼a.positively impact cognitive functioning, reduce behavioral problems and slow the progression of the disease.
￼b.positively impact behavioral problems but have little impact on cognitive functioning.
￼c.positively impact cognitive functioning and reduce behavioral problems but do not slow the progression of the disease.
￼d.have little measureable impact on behavioral or cognitive abilities.
Current treatments being investigated for Alzheimer’s disease include￼a.drugs to enhance the production of beta-amyloids.
￼b.injections of Leva-dopa to replace levels of dopamine in the brain.
￼c.antioxidants like vitamin E and C.
￼d.use of stimulants like methylphenidate.
What is the second most common type of dementia?￼a.vascular dementia
It appears as if the same lifestyle factors that contribute to the development of _____ also increase the risk for vascular dementia.￼a.Asperger syndrome
Vascular dementia￼a.is a slowly progressive deterioration of memory and thinking skills.
￼b.results from a series of small strokes, each adding rather quickly to the observed deterioration.
￼c.has a very powerful genetic basis.
￼d.results from taking medications or having a poor diet and can be reversed when these problems are corrected.
A key difference between Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia is that vascular dementia is more strongly￼a.associated with delirium.
￼b.influenced by lifestyle choices.
￼c.influenced by genetic factors.
￼d.associated with dementia.
Delirium is best defined as￼a.a normal part of the aging process.
￼c.another term for dementia.
￼d.a reversible state of confusion and disorientation.
Due to their mental slowness, elderly adults who are _____ are frequently misdiagnosed with delirium.￼a.depressed
Assignment: Psy 370 Ch. 8 MemoryStudent: JooYeon YooTake Details
In the information-processing model, the purpose of the sensory register is to￼a.retrieve data from short-term memory.
￼b.control the activities of long-term memory.
￼c.develop strategies for storing encoded data.
￼d.briefly hold a piece of information for possible processing.
Information typically stays in _____ for the briefest amount of time.￼a.short-term memory
Which is the best description of a typical short-term memory?￼a.Fairly long duration (minutes) and small capacity (seven or so items)
￼b.Fairly brief duration (seconds) and large capacity (seventy or so items)
￼c.Fairly brief duration (seconds) and small capacity (seven or so items)
￼d.Fairly long duration (minutes) and large capacity (seventy or so items)
Ethel looks up the phone number of a gas station and remembers it just long enough to walk over to the telephone and dial. When she is dialing, the information is contained in her￼a.short-term memory.
The main distinction between short-term memory and working memory is that working memory is￼a.actively processed.
Information is stored in _____ memory for a relatively permanent period of time.￼a.working
Which statement concerning memory is true?￼a.Short-term memory has a much larger storage capacity than long-term memory.
￼b.Working-term memory provides a temporary space for processing information.
￼c.Long-term memory appears not to exist until around age two years.
￼d.The sensory register is located in long-term memory.
Cognitive theorists suggest that the most likely order of the process of memory when information is being processed for the first time would be￼a.encoding, consolidation, storage, retrieval.
￼b.retrieval, encoding, consolidation, storage.
￼c.consolidation, storage, encoding, retrieval.
￼d.storage, retrieval, encoding, consolidation.
Encoding is best described as the process of￼a.cued recall.
￼c.taking information out of the system.
￼d.putting information into the system.
The process during which information is organized into a form suitable for long-term storage is called￼a.consolidation.
When information is taken out of long-term memory, it is being￼a.scripted.
On a recognition task, a person￼a.is not presented with the correct answer but is given a hint.
￼b.is neither presented with the correct answer nor given a hint.
￼c.must generate the answer completely on his or her own.
￼d.is presented with a list of alternatives that includes the correct answer.
On a pure recall memory task,￼a.no memory cues/aids are presented.
￼b.a correct answer is presented by itself.
￼c.a few hints are presented.
￼d.a correct answer is presented along with a few distracters.
On a(n) ____ memory task, a person trying to remember some information is given a hint but not the entire answer.￼a.implicit
A memory that occurs without any conscious effort is best referred to as￼a.scripted.
An explicit memory￼a.is deliberately recalled.
￼b.always has a sexual overtone.
￼c.occurs only after a hint has been given.
￼d.involves recalling behaviors but not ideas.
Implicit memory is to explicit memory as￼a.retrieval is to storage.
￼b.unintentional is to deliberate.
￼c.cued it to uncued.
￼d.effort is to automatic.
Semantic memories are for￼a.general facts.
￼b.early childhood experiences.
￼d.how to perform an action.
_____ memories always involve personal experiences.￼a.Procedural
Which is the best example of an episodic memory?￼a.Recalling your 21st birthday party
￼b.Recalling the words to the song “Happy Birthday”
￼c.Naming four kinds of ice cream
￼d.Remembering how to light a candle
The fact that some forms of amnesia destroy explicit memory but not implicit memory indicates that￼a.long-term memory lacks organization.
￼b.these forms of memory operate independently.
￼c.implicit memory is learned and explicit is innate.
￼d.explicit memory develops earlier than implicit memory.
Research has indicated that procedural memory is mediated by the straitum. This means that￼a.language plays a significant role in the development of memory.
￼b.memory requires cognitive effort.
￼c.the brain is involved in processing memory.
￼d.only information that is attended to is recalled.
Carlos has experienced significant damage to his hippocampus (an area located in the medial temporal lobe). How would this most likely impact his memory?￼a.He would not be able to recall events from his childhood.
￼b.He would not be able to recall who he is.
￼c.He could recall past events but not past factual information.
￼d.He would have trouble creating new episodic memories.
Which statement concerning memory is true?￼a.Implicit memory increases in capacity from infancy through adulthood then declines, while explicit memory capacity peaks in childhood then declines.
￼b.Explicit memory increases in capacity from infancy through adulthood then declines, while implicit memory capacity is constant across the lifespan.
￼c.Implicit memory increases in capacity from infancy through adulthood then declines, while explicit memory capacity is constant across the lifespan.
￼d.Explicit memory increases in capacity from infancy through adulthood then declines, while implicit memory capacity peaks in childhood then declines.
Habituation is best described as learning￼a.a reflex.
￼b.not to respond.
￼c.in reaction to reinforcement.
￼d.a new response.
Haynes, Rovee-Collier (1997) research on infant memory involved recording kicking behavior when a ribbon was tied to the infant’s foot, demonstrating that young children have _____ memory.￼a.elaborative
The research study of infant memory involving a ribbon tied to an infant’s foot relied heavily on _____ conditioning techniques.￼a.classical
Older children can learn faster and remember more than younger children because older children typically show a significant increase in￼a.the capacity of long-term memory.
￼b.the size of their sensory register.
￼c.working-memory space available for constructive use.
Case suggests that a preschooler’s tendency to center (as described by Piaget) is likely related to limited _____ memory size.￼a.implicit
Which best describes the memory strategy of rehearsal?￼a.Take original information, expand on it, and make connections to existing memories.
￼b.Repeat to self over and over.
￼c.See it and be it.
￼d.Organize into meaningful categories, then memorize.
Which memory strategy is being used when a long number is memorized by breaking it into manageable subunits each containing three digits?￼a.Rehearsal
￼d.Method of loci
Which best describes the memory strategy of organization?￼a.Take original information, expand on it, and make connections to existing memories.
￼b.Repeat to self over and over.
￼c.Classify into meaningful categories, then memorize.
￼d.See it and be it.
The best example of elaboration is￼a.consolidating “red” and “green” into a color group and “chair” and “table” into a furniture group.
￼b.seeing the color red but perceiving the color green.
￼c.noting that the red chair and the green piano remind you of last year’s Christmas party.
￼d.repeating “red, chair, dog” several times.
Wayne has trouble remembering the last four digits of his new phone number (4422) until he makes the connection that the last two digits are exactly half of the first two digits. Once he makes this connection, he has no trouble remembering the number! This best demonstrates the memory concept of￼a.rehearsal.
Which is NOT an example of metamemory?￼a.Knowing which memory strategies are most effective for you
￼b.Knowing which memorization tasks are most difficult for you
￼c.Knowing the difference between metaphysics and meta-analysis
￼d.Being able to plan and control your memory processes as you learn
Metamemory awareness is most likely to be displayed in young children￼a.who have never been in situations in which they had to remember something and they are facing a task that they find irrelevant.
￼b.who have often been in situations in which they had to remember something and they are facing a task that they find irrelevant.
￼c.who have often been in situations in which they had to remember something and they are facing a task that they find relevant.
￼d.who have never been in situations in which they had to remember something and they are facing a task that they find relevant.
A person’s knowledge base is defined as￼a.the difference between what he or she knows and what he or she can acquire with guided participation.
￼b.unconscious awareness of an event.
￼c.how much the person knows about a topic.
￼d.the rate at which he or she can solve a task.
An autobiographical memory is a memory for￼a.other people’s lives.
￼b.historical events that occurred before your conception.
￼c.future possible events in one’s life.
￼d.past personal experiences.
As a typical college student, research indicates that Hanna would be most likely toshift her focus to _____ if she suddenly found herself pressed for time when studying for an exam.￼a.another subject
￼b.the most difficult material
￼c.the easiest material
If information fails to be encoded it is _____ to remember.￼a.easy
￼c.a little difficult
Research on autobiographical memory in adulthood has shown that the more _____ an event, the better it will later be recalled.￼a.distant
_____ events tend to have the greatest likelihood of being recalled after the event.￼a.Only positive emotional
￼c.Both positive and negative emotional
￼d.Only negative emotional
Which statement concerning individuals with mild cognitive impairment is FALSE?￼a.They will display deficits in other cognitive areas
￼b.They will have difficulty learning
￼c.They will be forgetful
￼d.They will show all the symptoms of dementia
With which of the following tasks would older adults have the LEAST problem?￼a.A memory task where they can use well-practiced memory strategies
￼b.A timed memory task
￼c.A task where they are asked to recall rather than recognize names
￼d.A memory task where the material is unfamiliar
Which statement concerning memory strategies and basic processing capacities with age is true?￼a.Memory problems in adulthood are more likely the result of original encoding and not retrieval.
￼b.Holding negative stereotypes concerning memory ability actually leads to improved memory abilities in older adulthood.
￼c.Limitations in working memory in older adulthood may be due to the slowing of the nervous system.
￼d.Verbal knowledge begins to show a steep decline beginning around age 50.
Limitations in working memory in older adulthood appear to be most directly related to reduced functioning of the _____ system.￼a.visual
The most accurate summation of declines in information-processing skills in older adults is that they are￼a.both inevitable and universal.
￼b.inevitable but not universal.
￼c.universal but not inevitable.
￼d.neither inevitable nor universal.
On which type of problem-solving task would the performance of a middle-aged adult be superior to that of a young adult?￼a.On unfamiliar, meaningless laboratory tasks
￼b.On unfamiliar, but meaningful tasks
￼c.On familiar and meaningful tasks
￼d.Middle-aged problem-solvers never out-perform younger adults
On an everyday problem such as what to do if you cannot pay your electric bill, _____ tend to out-perform other groups.￼a.teenagers
Which process would best be described as “holding information”?￼a.Storage